A title is a legal document that serves as evidence of ownership of a property or asset. It outlines the rights and obligations associated with the ownership, including any encumbrances such as mortgages, liens, or easements. In the context of real estate, the title is crucial for establishing clear and undisputed ownership of land or property.

Importance of a title

Proof of ownership

The title serves as the official record of ownership, ensuring that the person or entity named on the title has legal rights to the property. This is essential for buying, selling, or transferring property.

Transfer of ownership

When property is sold, the title must be transferred from the seller to the buyer. This process ensures that the new owner’s rights are legally recognised and that the previous owner’s rights are relinquished.

Encumbrances and liens

A title reveals any encumbrances or liens on the property. These are claims or legal rights against the property by another party, such as a mortgage, tax lien, or easement. Understanding these encumbrances is crucial for both buyers and lenders.

Legal protection

Holding a clear and undisputed title provides legal protection to the owner against claims by others. It helps prevent disputes over ownership and ensures the owner’s right to use and enjoy the property.

Types of titles

Freehold title

A freehold title grants the owner complete and indefinite ownership of the property. The owner has the right to use, lease, or sell the property as they wish, subject to local laws and regulations.

Leasehold title

A leasehold title grants the holder the right to use and occupy the property for a specified period, as outlined in the lease agreement. The leaseholder does not own the land but has a legal interest in it for the duration of the lease.

Strata title

Strata title is commonly used for units, apartments, and townhouses. It involves ownership of an individual unit within a larger complex, along with shared ownership of common areas such as gardens, hallways, and recreational facilities.

Torrens title

The Torrens title system is used in Australia to register land ownership. It is a government-guaranteed system that provides a secure and reliable record of property ownership, making it easier to transfer titles and resolve disputes.

Title search and insurance

Title search

A title search is conducted to examine the history of the property’s title, ensuring there are no outstanding claims or issues that could affect ownership. This process is essential when buying property to ensure a clear and marketable title.

Title insurance

Title insurance protects the buyer and lender against potential losses arising from defects in the title, such as undiscovered liens, errors in public records, or fraudulent claims. It provides financial protection and peace of mind for property transactions.

Steps to obtain a clear title

Conduct a title search

Before purchasing a property, conduct a thorough title search to identify any encumbrances, liens, or disputes that could affect ownership. This helps ensure the title is clear and marketable.

Resolve any issues

If the title search reveals any issues, such as unpaid taxes or legal disputes, these must be resolved before proceeding with the purchase. This may involve paying off liens, settling disputes, or obtaining releases from previous owners.

Obtain title insurance

Title insurance provides protection against future claims or issues related to the title. It is recommended for both buyers and lenders to secure their financial interests in the property.

Transfer the title

Once any issues are resolved, the title can be transferred from the seller to the buyer. This process involves legal documentation and registration with the appropriate government authority to officially recognise the new owner.


Consider a couple purchasing a home in East Bairnsdale. Before finalising the purchase, they conduct a title search and discover an unpaid tax lien on the property. The seller agrees to pay off the lien, and the couple obtains title insurance to protect against any future claims. The title is then transferred to their names, and they become the legal owners of the property with a clear and marketable title.


A title is a fundamental aspect of property ownership, providing legal proof and protection of ownership rights. Understanding the different types of titles, conducting thorough title searches, and securing title insurance are crucial steps in any property transaction. These measures help ensure a smooth and secure transfer of ownership, protecting both buyers and lenders from potential legal and financial risks. For more information on property titles and real estate transactions in Australia, you can visit the Australian Registrars’ National Electronic Conveyancing Council (ARNECC) website.

DISCLAIMER: The information provided on this page is for general informational and educational purposes only and is never intended as financial advice. While we strive to ensure that the content is accurate and up-to-date, it may not reflect the most current legal or financial developments. Always consult with a qualified financial advisor or professional before making any financial decisions. Use the information at your own risk.

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