Tenancy refers to the legal arrangement between a landlord and a tenant in which the tenant occupies property owned by the landlord in exchange for rent. This agreement outlines the terms and conditions of the tenancy, including the duration, rent amount, responsibilities of both parties, and other pertinent details. In Australia, tenancy agreements are governed by state and territory laws, ensuring protection and fair treatment for both landlords and tenants.

Types of tenancy agreements

Fixed-term tenancy

A fixed-term tenancy is a rental agreement that lasts for a specified period, usually six months to a year. The terms of the lease are fixed for the duration of the agreement, and neither party can change the terms or end the lease without mutual consent unless there is a breach of the agreement.

Periodic tenancy

Periodic tenancy, also known as a month-to-month tenancy, continues indefinitely until either the landlord or tenant gives notice to terminate the agreement. This type of tenancy offers flexibility as it does not have a fixed end date, allowing either party to terminate the lease with proper notice, typically 30 days.

Residential tenancy

Residential tenancy refers to rental agreements for residential properties, such as houses, apartments, and units. These agreements are designed to protect the rights of both landlords and tenants and are subject to specific residential tenancy laws in each state and territory.

Commercial tenancy

Commercial tenancy involves the rental of properties for business purposes, such as offices, retail spaces, and industrial properties. Commercial tenancy agreements are typically more complex and tailored to the needs of the business, with longer lease terms and specific provisions regarding business operations.

Key components of a tenancy agreement


The amount of rent, payment frequency (e.g., weekly, fortnightly, monthly), and the method of payment are specified in the tenancy agreement. The agreement may also outline conditions for rent increases and how they will be communicated.


A bond, also known as a security deposit, is a sum of money paid by the tenant at the start of the tenancy. The bond is held by a third party (often a government body) and is used to cover any damage to the property or unpaid rent at the end of the tenancy. In Australia, the bond is typically equivalent to four weeks’ rent.


The tenancy agreement specifies the duration of the tenancy, whether it is a fixed-term or periodic agreement. For fixed-term agreements, the start and end dates are clearly outlined.

Maintenance and repairs

Responsibilities for maintenance and repairs are detailed in the tenancy agreement. Generally, landlords are responsible for structural repairs and maintenance, while tenants are responsible for keeping the property clean and reporting any issues promptly.

Rights and responsibilities

The agreement outlines the rights and responsibilities of both the landlord and tenant. This includes the tenant’s right to quiet enjoyment of the property and the landlord’s right to access the property for inspections and maintenance, given appropriate notice.


The conditions under which the tenancy can be terminated are specified in the agreement. This includes notice periods required for termination by either party, conditions for early termination, and procedures for ending the tenancy.

Rights and responsibilities of tenants and landlords

Tenant rights

  • Quiet enjoyment: Tenants have the right to live in the property without interference from the landlord.
  • Repairs and maintenance: Tenants can expect the property to be maintained in a habitable condition and can request repairs as needed.
  • Privacy: Landlords must give proper notice before entering the property, except in emergencies.
  • Bond protection: Bonds must be lodged with the appropriate authority, ensuring that tenants can reclaim their bond at the end of the tenancy, minus any legitimate deductions.

Tenant responsibilities

  • Pay rent on time: Tenants are required to pay rent as agreed in the tenancy agreement.
  • Maintain the property: Tenants must keep the property clean and report any damage or necessary repairs to the landlord.
  • Respect the property: Tenants should use the property responsibly and avoid causing damage beyond normal wear and tear.

Landlord rights

  • Receive rent: Landlords have the right to receive rent on time as specified in the tenancy agreement.
  • Property inspection: Landlords can inspect the property, usually with notice given to the tenant.
  • End the tenancy: Landlords can end the tenancy according to the terms specified in the agreement and relevant laws.

Landlord responsibilities

  • Maintain the property: Landlords must ensure the property is safe, habitable, and maintained in good repair.
  • Lodge the bond: Landlords are responsible for lodging the tenant’s bond with the appropriate authority.
  • Respect tenant’s privacy: Landlords must provide proper notice before entering the property for inspections or repairs.

Example of how to illustrate tenancy

Consider a young couple in Tweed Heads who have just signed a fixed-term tenancy agreement for a one-bedroom apartment. The agreement specifies that they will pay $1,500 per month in rent, with a bond equivalent to one month’s rent. The landlord is responsible for maintaining the property’s structural integrity, while the tenants are responsible for keeping the apartment clean and reporting any maintenance issues. The tenancy agreement provides the couple with the security of knowing they have a home for the next year and outlines clear expectations and protections for both parties.


Tenancy is a crucial aspect of the rental market, providing a structured framework for the relationship between landlords and tenants. Understanding the types of tenancy agreements, key components, and the rights and responsibilities of both parties is essential for ensuring a smooth and fair rental experience. For more information on tenancy laws and rights in Australia, you can visit the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) website.

DISCLAIMER: The information provided on this page is for general informational and educational purposes only and is never intended as financial advice. While we strive to ensure that the content is accurate and up-to-date, it may not reflect the most current legal or financial developments. Always consult with a qualified financial advisor or professional before making any financial decisions. Use the information at your own risk.

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