Debt Service

Debt service refers to the total amount of money required to repay both the principal and interest on a debt over a specified period. It encompasses all the payments made to service outstanding loans, including mortgages, personal loans, credit cards, and other forms of debt. Debt service is a critical concept for both individuals and businesses as it impacts cash flow, financial planning, and overall financial health.

Importance of debt service

Financial health assessment

Debt service is a key indicator of an individual’s or business’s financial health. By evaluating debt service requirements, borrowers can understand their ability to meet financial obligations and manage cash flow effectively.


Lenders assess a borrower’s debt service capacity to determine their creditworthiness. A strong ability to service debt improves the likelihood of obtaining favourable loan terms and lower interest rates.

Budgeting and financial planning

Understanding debt service obligations helps individuals and businesses create accurate budgets and financial plans. It ensures that sufficient funds are allocated for debt repayment, reducing the risk of default.

Key components of debt service

Principal repayment

Principal repayment refers to the portion of debt service payments that goes towards reducing the outstanding loan balance. Over the loan term, regular principal repayments decrease the total debt owed.

Interest payments

Interest payments are the costs associated with borrowing money, calculated as a percentage of the outstanding loan balance. Interest payments compensate lenders for the risk and opportunity cost of providing funds.

Loan term

The loan term is the period over which the debt is to be repaid. Loan terms can vary widely, from short-term loans (a few months) to long-term loans (several years or decades). The term affects the size of periodic debt service payments and the total interest paid.


Amortisation refers to the process of gradually repaying a loan through regular, scheduled payments over the loan term. Amortised loans typically have fixed payment amounts, with each payment covering both principal and interest.

Debt service coverage ratio (DSCR)

The debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) is a financial metric used to evaluate an entity’s ability to service its debt. It is calculated by dividing net operating income (NOI) by total debt service. A DSCR greater than 1 indicates that the entity generates enough income to cover its debt obligations, while a DSCR less than 1 suggests potential difficulties in meeting debt payments.

Calculating DSCR

DSCR = Net Operating Income (NOI) / Total Debt Service

For example, if a business has a net operating income of $150,000 and total debt service of $120,000, its DSCR would be:

DSCR = 150,000 / 12,000 = 1.25

A DSCR of 1.25 means the business generates 25% more income than needed to cover its debt service, indicating good financial health.

Pros and cons of debt service


  • Predictable payments: Regular debt service payments provide a predictable schedule for managing finances, aiding in budgeting and financial planning.
  • Creditworthiness improvement: Consistent debt service payments enhance credit scores, improving access to future credit at favourable terms.
  • Asset acquisition: Debt service enables the acquisition of significant assets, such as homes or business equipment, which might not be affordable upfront.


  • Interest costs: Servicing debt involves paying interest, which can significantly increase the total cost of borrowing.
  • Financial strain: High debt service obligations can strain an individual’s or business’s finances, reducing flexibility and increasing the risk of default.
  • Opportunity cost: Funds used for debt service could otherwise be invested or used for other financial opportunities, potentially yielding higher returns.

Example of how to illustrate debt service

Consider a small business that has taken out a loan of $100,000 with an annual interest rate of 6% and a loan term of 5 years. The business needs to calculate its annual debt service obligations, including both principal and interest payments.

Using an amortisation schedule, the business determines that its annual debt service payment is approximately $23,739. This payment includes both the principal repayment and interest. The business uses this information to ensure it generates sufficient income to cover its debt service and maintain healthy cash flow.


Debt service is a fundamental aspect of managing personal and business finances. By understanding and effectively managing debt service obligations, borrowers can maintain financial stability, improve creditworthiness, and make informed financial decisions. For more information on debt service and financial management in Australia, visit the Australian Government’s MoneySmart website.

DISCLAIMER: The information provided on this page is for general informational and educational purposes only and is never intended as financial advice. While we strive to ensure that the content is accurate and up-to-date, it may not reflect the most current legal or financial developments. Always consult with a qualified financial advisor or professional before making any financial decisions. Use the information at your own risk.

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